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AP and Other Stories Summary and Analysis of common college app essay, A P, Part 1. Phd Thesis! This story is narrated by Sammy, a young cashier at the supermarket A P. One day, three girls in bathing suits stop in to buy some snacks. Sammy is immediately struck by a “chunky” (596) girl with a “sweet broad soft-looking can.” He is so attracted to her that he accidentally rings up a box of crackers twice, provoking the app essay, ire of the berkeley library, middle-aged customer who was trying to buy them. By the time Sammy calms down the college, irate customer, the girls are making their way towards an aisle close to his checkout slot. He notices that the girls are barefoot. None of them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the first as chunky and “pale” and full assignment the second as “the kind of girl that other girls think is college questions, very ‘striking’ and ‘attractive’ but never quite makes it.” However, he quickly identifies the third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of her friends and almost seems to be showing them how to command attention. He infers that it was her idea to come to A P in the first place.
He calls her the thesis candide, queen or, later, Queenie. Sammy notices that the straps of the queen’s bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is no clothing between the college questions, top of the berkeley phd thesis library, bathing suit and the top of her head. He is in common app essay, awe of her beauty, and marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into a grocery store with her straps down. He continues to outline stare at her physical features, including her long neck and her oaky hair. The other people in the store are shocked by the girls’ skimpy attire, as well as the fact that they are walking “against the usual traffic” (597) down the aisles. Common! Sammy criticizes these “sheep” for looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to argumentative essay outline them.
He speculates that “you could set off dynamite” (598) in an A P and common app essay questions the shoppers would still go about their business as usual. Nevertheless, they do seem a bit “jiggled,” with some women even turning around to look at the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes. Only ten years before John Updike published “A P,” his New Yorker colleague J.D. Salinger rocked the literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in the Rye . There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the main character of Salinger’s novel, and Updike’s narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for authority and hypocrisy. But while Salinger’s hero is so self-absorbed that we never get an thesis candide objective perspective on his world, Sammy is sharply perceptive, offering insights about human nature and society at large. The main action of “A P” unfolds not in the grocery store but in Sammy’s mind. It is common college app essay questions, not a chronicle of his ordinary day at work, but rather of his rejection of phd thesis, bourgeois conformity.
Some critics trace Sammy’s heritage not to Holden Caulfield but to Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and moral self-reliance (Porter 1155). In the college questions, early pages of “A P,” Sammy establishes his contempt for conformity and consumerism, insinuating that the people who shop at A P are “sheep” (597) who can never be roused out of thesis candide, their daily routines. This critique is cemented by his detailed description of the store. Sammy locates himself “between the checkouts and the Special bins” (596) and describes the girls going up “the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle” (597). This careful delineation of the story’s space suggests an underlying concern for college questions realism despite Sammy’s lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on caricature. Sammy’s list of grocery items in the aisle is humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of unease with the berkeley phd thesis library, rampant consumerism in college app essay questions, American culture. None of the habeas, foods Sammy lists are nutritious. They are all snack foods or condiments—or in the case of the pet foods, not for human consumption at college questions all. Rather than a necessity for survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from their physical existence as human beings.
Sammy’s sexual desire for the girls initially seems to be an antidote to this deadening consumerism. If the other shoppers have, in conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the girls’ rebellion against social norms seems to thesis candide be a refreshing dose of human vitality. This interpretation is reinforced by their nakedness; by forgoing regular clothing and the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and the beauty of this spectacle is stunning to all who witness it. However, there is an college app essay questions alternate interpretation of the girls’ nudity. They are consumers just as much as the older shoppers are, and berkeley like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at cookies before finally deciding to college questions buy the herring snacks. They are conformists in their own way, with the critical of hamlet, queen leading the other two girls who timidly “peek around [the queen’s body] and [hunch] over a little” (597). Although he knows nothing of their personalities and concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. His sexual desire, then, is just as greedy and common app essay overindulgent as the shoppers’ desire for full assignment snack foods. College Questions! Over the course of his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on his descriptions of the women in corpus essay, the story, Sammy certainly seems to have a misogynist worldview. He insinuates that the young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for older women.
These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the college app essay, engines of American consumerism, and phd thesis library he consistently belittles them, describing them as “houseslaves in pin curlers” (598). His account of the middle-aged woman at the beginning of “A P” is dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and app essay questions compares her to a bird, calming her down by “[getting] her feathers smoothed and her goodies into a bag” (596). Although the argumentative on bullying, character’s outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to college app essay questions criticize his treatment of women. Essay! How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in common college, MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and Other Stories Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for AP and Other Stories is library, a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at the A P, a large supermarket chain.
He narrates a day at the store, complaining about customers who are mean or behave like sheep. He is critical of the commercialism of modern culture. Three. Sammy thinks he experiences an epiphany for the rights of these girls but his decision to quit his job is college app essay questions, really driven by teen angst and essay sexual attraction. Check out this GradeSaver link below: Study Guide for AP and college questions Other Stories.
AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. AP and Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and other short stories by John Updike.
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on essay IN WATCHING the common flow of argumentative on bullying, events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of common college, articles commemorating the phd thesis library end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Common College? Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the essay on christmas rebirth of college questions, a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and essay, order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of common app essay, ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in argumentative essay outline the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to app essay where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of berkeley, viable systematic alternatives to college questions Western liberalism.
In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in argumentative essay on bullying both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of app essay questions, history as such: that is, the end point of full assignment, mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. College Questions? This is thesis candide, not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of common college app essay questions, ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . Critical Essay Of Hamlet? To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of questions, material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to argumentative essay outline on bullying the present, and common app essay, that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of argumentative essay outline on bullying, modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. Common College Questions? The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in corpus essay an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is common college, our misfortune that few of habeas corpus, us are familiar with Hegel's work from questions direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the full assignment distorting lens of Marxism. College App Essay Questions? In France, however, there has been an effort to full assignment save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on college app essay questions the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on habeas the Left and Raymond Aron on common college the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of habeas essay, its basic categories from common app essay questions Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the argumentative outline on bullying Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806.
For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the common college Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the essay on bullying victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of common questions, liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the essay end of history because it was at college app essay questions that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and habeas corpus essay, the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. Questions? The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and thesis candide, upheavals simply had the college app essay questions effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of essay, law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the common college consent of the governed.
For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the thesis candide creation of the common Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. Thesis Candide? But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. Common App Essay Questions? There is no struggle or conflict over essay large issues, and consequently no need for college questions generals or statesmen; what remains is short essay, primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of college, history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the short contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the common app essay trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the essay rubric of app essay questions, ideology.
Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the short essay ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by common college, a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in on christmas turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by app essay questions, John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and thesis candide, self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of app essay questions, religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of consciousness in short essay the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the common college material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the critical essay history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by questions, the prevailing material mode of critical essay of hamlet, production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is app essay, our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an critical of hamlet empire whose economy is barely above the level of college questions, subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only short essay on christmas, of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well.
Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and app essay questions, culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for thesis candide economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of common college, Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to habeas corpus any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the app essay questions piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the short essay same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of questions, leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the on christmas ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the common app essay questions material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the habeas essay emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the college questions contemporary world, the short on christmas poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and questions, stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on critical essay certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to college phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in short China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and common, that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. Habeas Corpus? But the common app essay deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from thesis candide central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for common college the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in thesis candide which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the common victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of outline on bullying, consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in common college app essay questions 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to critical of hamlet Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the college ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is library, not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is college questions, not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in of hamlet the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of common, consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to argumentative avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of college questions, consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of on christmas, consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at common college app essay the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in argumentative on bullying fact reached the common college app essay end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the thesis candide idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an college answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the short on christmas challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for common we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of of hamlet, mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.
This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to college questions most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. Full Assignment? There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in common app essay questions other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and argumentative outline, this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the college app essay class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years.
But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Phd Thesis? Thus black poverty in the United States is college app essay questions, not the inherent product of corpus, liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of common, communism in the developed Western world, it is full assignment, safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of common app essay, conservative parties from thesis candide Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to common app essay questions be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of thesis candide, progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the common college future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by berkeley phd thesis, the occurrence of common questions, major ideological transformations.
Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. Essay? It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. App Essay? Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to thesis candide Japan were adapted and transformed by college app essay questions, the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to short on christmas democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of app essay, economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and full assignment, institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the college app essay products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to phd thesis the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . College App Essay Questions? Desire for access to argumentative outline the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well.
The economic success of the common questions other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the essay outline idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by common questions, an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the full assignment larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and common app essay questions, broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China.
The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an on christmas economic system. Questions? Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about full assignment decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in college app essay questions the countryside. Essay? The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to college app essay give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in argumentative outline on bullying only five years, and in common college app essay the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the essay on christmas economy. College App Essay? Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and berkeley library, most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is common college, no Chinese equivalent of glasnost.
The Chinese leadership has in corpus fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to app essay questions pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and berkeley phd thesis, behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and common college app essay questions, that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for full assignment the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the common college campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to essay outline on bullying avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . College? Yet the short essay on christmas pull of the liberal idea continues to app essay questions be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in habeas corpus the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the app essay Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in critical essay the political system as well.
What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and app essay questions, dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the library ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in college app essay the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. Thesis Candide? It should be clear that in common app essay terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in short the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and common college, the cooperative movement represent only argumentative essay outline on bullying, a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to college app essay democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date.
Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to thesis candide look at underlying trends in college questions the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of thesis candide, sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of common app essay questions, functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on full assignment which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in common app essay the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on essay of hamlet the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the college reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in thesis candide their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to common questions Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and corpus essay, that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices.
After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into common app essay questions policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the critical essay of hamlet economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of common college app essay questions, dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and outline, has shown little intention of ending the questions Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to argumentative outline legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for common questions their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of thesis candide, law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the common app essay whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the outline on bullying original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. College App Essay? While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and corpus essay, disciplined dictatorship of common app essay, a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in of hamlet the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and common college questions, various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for short on christmas bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of app essay questions, Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the habeas corpus root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in college questions Soviet history on which to full assignment anchor the common college legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule.
But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in berkeley phd thesis both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the college app essay questions bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of critical, other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in college app essay questions this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of argumentative essay on bullying, going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years.
But what both groups desire is common college, tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the argumentative on bullying fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of common app essay, class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted.
One is inclined to say that the habeas corpus essay revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of common college app essay, religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the habeas weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. Common College Questions? In the contemporary world only corpus, Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the college app essay questions doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance.
Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and thesis candide, if those passions have been muted to app essay questions a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in thesis candide Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism.
In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of college, National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the essay of hamlet world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the college negative desire of argumentative essay outline on bullying, independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. Common College App Essay Questions? As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for full assignment liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from common liberalism itself so much as from the argumentative essay outline on bullying fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of app essay, peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.
While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of outline, new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of app essay questions, sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to full assignment be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and common college, will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come.
But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the essay developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in college app essay questions the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is critical, a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at common college app essay the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the full assignment nations and regimes that constitute it. Common App Essay? This school in thesis candide effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of college app essay questions, power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on phd thesis a substratum of permanent great power interest is app essay, a highly questionable proposition. For the essay way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by college app essay questions, a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the corpus twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the common college right of one nation to critical rule over common other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to short on christmas the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and common college app essay, Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of thesis candide, higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to common questions the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. Thesis Candide? But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of college, European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism.
The most extreme form of berkeley phd thesis library, nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of app essay, nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is essay, far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by common, an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and on christmas, France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and common app essay questions, New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in phd thesis library international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is college app essay, therefore a curious one.
It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in on christmas the meantime, and common college questions, that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of full assignment, date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and questions, expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is thesis candide, a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.
The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in common college questions no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. Essay? New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in questions which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on argumentative essay outline the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for common college app essay mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by berkeley phd thesis, new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of college app essay, glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the habeas authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in app essay questions themselves.
Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out phd thesis library, entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in common app essay questions the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in essay of hamlet history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on common questions the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from thesis candide China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in questions the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of habeas essay, large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of common, international conflict per se.
For the berkeley phd thesis library world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Common College Questions? Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of essay of hamlet, history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the college app essay questions post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on full assignment the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the common college questions worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in argumentative outline on bullying myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in college the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to full assignment get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the app essay questions Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Berkeley? This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text)
2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to common college app essay questions Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. Essay? (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the common college app essay questions Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and essay outline, everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the college material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in short essay on christmas the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the common reform movements in critical of hamlet China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by app essay questions, Moscow's sense of insecurity in full assignment the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. Common College Questions? (back to text)
10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of full assignment, will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in app essay questions the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the habeas essay term fascism here in common app essay questions its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of berkeley library, this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to college its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to berkeley library rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. College App Essay Questions? Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12.
I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on essay purely formal arts, proved that the common college app essay universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. Full Assignment? This is not true in common app essay questions Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the full assignment deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the questions standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16.
See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. Argumentative Essay? (back to text) 17. College App Essay Questions? It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to of hamlet admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. Common App Essay? (back to text)
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Parents: what you should avoid saying to college app essay teenagers taking exams! June 1, 2015 - posted by berkeley library Tutorhub. Private tutoring: independent views on its pros and cons. March 6, 2012 - posted by Tutorhub. 10 Best Excuses for Not Doing Your Homework. I’m sure most, if not all students, have at common app essay questions least a few times (or more!) during school where they’ve handed in a homework assignment late, and so as not to get into trouble, given an habeas corpus, excuse to their teacher as to why they couldn’t complete their homework on time. Be careful not to use the same excuse too many times, or your teacher may not be so sympathetic next time!
If you’re like me, and often forget about their homework (oops), then maybe this list of excuses can help to bail you out: “ My dog ate my homework! ” – Hmm, perhaps not the most subtle or workable of common, excuses, but if you really do have a dog… There may be more than a 0.0001% chance that it could work?! If all else fails, you could always bring a stool sample as proof… “ Homework? I don’t remember getting any homework? ” – You probably DO remember getting your homework, but your teacher doesn’t know that, right? “ Ahh, I thought it was in my bag, but it looks like I’ve left it at critical essay of hamlet home by accident! ” – Of course you left it at home by accident! This one is a great excuse, it’s worked a fair few times for me, anyway… “ I didn’t understand the homework, could you explain it to me so I can give it a second go? ” – This excuse works better more for common college questions, maths or question based homework rather than essays.
However, it’s a good way to hit two birds with one stone (you get help on your homework, and short essay on christmas, a deadline extension!), especially if you actually don’t understand the app essay questions homework assignment! “ My computer crashed and I didn’t save my work/my printer stopped working! ” – With more and more people using computer based software to complete their homework, a whole new spectrum of excuses have been opened to the desperate, homework-lacking student. “ I had too much homework from berkeley phd thesis, my [insert subject name] class to complete the common homework you assigned, ” – Poor you, clearly you’ve been given way too much homework by all your other teachers to do this piece! A homework overload is habeas corpus never a good thing. “ Oh, I think I was absent when the homework was given out… ” – You were obviously ill when the college homework was handed out in of hamlet class, even though your teacher is looking at common college your ‘tick’ of attendance in the register! “ I’ve been busy with extra-curricular activities and volunteering work outside of school ,” – If you’re doing any work or activities outside of work, hey, why not use them as an excuse for habeas corpus, not doing your homework! It’s a pretty believable one (especially next to app essay questions excuse 1.). Critical. “ I’ve been so ill over the past few days, so I haven’t been able to do any of my homework ,” – Bed ridden, feverish and unable to distinguish your cat from your sheet of homework, how on earth can you be expected to app essay work in library this state?! Tell the truth – After using all these excuses, perhaps it’s time to common college questions pull out your triumph card – the truth. On the occasion, your teacher may appreciate your use of the short essay truth rather than the usual bombardment of college app essay questions, (unbelievable) excuses.
Use this one when you’re feeling especially sincere (and desperate). I hope these excuses have been helpful, just remember that the more you use them, the critical more unbelievable they’ll become to your teacher. In fact, it may just be better (and easier) for you to hand in you homework on time! 90 Responses to “10 Best Excuses for Not Doing Your Homework” The best one I heard at uni was “my desk set on fire.” Seriously. how in the world did your desk catch on common college app essay questions fire? Eugh I hate it when my desk spontaneously combusts :/ Especially when I’m trying to write!! First World Problems. Well you never know knowing us students #128521; haha that’s funny but in chemistry that would be more realistic. Why don’t you just go to the bathroom when she hands it out, and critical essay, the next day explain what happened?
Its being honest, with a twist right? I think i got a good exuse “my homewrk got stuk in common college app essay questions my locker” I once told my teacher that I accidently took my little sister’s homework and critical essay of hamlet, so she must have mine. The teacher bought it and I got a extra 2 days! My friend has said that she left her jotter @ home also works with memory stick etc. Just to college questions remember to use different teachers. The one i use is that i forgot it, then when you next have that lesson say ‘Oh I put it on full assignment your desk’, only common questions works if the teacher has a particulary messy desk though or a desk in another room. My best one is: I gave it to critical you when the teacher says huh? or no you act suprised and say yes i did! and app essay questions, then the short essay on christmas teacher says but i dont remember that you say i do then they usually let u off the hook. My excuses are: I did it, and then I put it in my bag, but I wanted to check it and app essay, then i checked it and never put it back in! Ooopsy! I left it in full assignment my desk and didn’t take it home.
Once I said: ( when the class was silent ) i forgot my homework, left it at questions a friends, LOL. I actually said lol #128578; My best is, I’ll bring it tomorrow… Next day, “My parents dragged me into the city for dinner and habeas, we didn’t get home till 1:00. It works all the time… Only if you live near the city but not in college app essay the city. The best one I ever received was: My Mom still has it! I told her to thesis candide hurry up.
Lol that’s pretty funny. just say the truth people it is`nt gonna kill u or will it heeehhahah. Say that you left your homework on the bus or car. speak for common college app essay, yourself! i got 4 detentions in one day once! so I got two weeks of detention in critical of hamlet one day for throwing a chair at the teacher.
Me=If you do not do anything you don’t get in common app essay questions trouble right?Teacher=Right. Me=i did not do my home work so i’m not in trouble Ha Ha Teacher= -_- Lmfao these r the short essay worst excuses ever. student: Miss/Sir Will you tell me off for something I didn’t do? teacher:Of course not. student:Good because I didn’t do my homework. Ha! That’s really funny. The weirdest excuse i have heard is either my hampster ate it or it got abducted by ailens.
Thanks guys you really helped -.- thank you i love the excuses do you have a excuse for common, drama homework!? #128577; Homework in short essay on christmas Drama? I never remember that! i woud=ldnt say the truth to common college app essay my teacher shes strict all she says is detentoin. I actually did forget what now. In those situations it’s best to just come clean about it.
Teachers are getting wise to excuses now so I think simply saying you forgot it is the best course of action! #128577; actually i was on a wedding so i was busy the of hamlet whole day and had to attend functions at night u know indian weddings #128512; u could say my little sister put it in the bin but even if i have excuses i get punished but i get over common college app essay, it. once said hamster ate my home work and teacher belived me. Must be a big hamster #128578; YOU ARE SO WEIRD! #128521; I told my German teacher my rabbit ate my homework once. Thesis Candide. The thing is, he actually did. I got another sheet and app essay questions, he got to berkeley it again. I brought it in the next day and common app essay questions, it had bite marks on the corner.
LOL. “Wow, ooh. I think i was absent when the homework was given out. Classic excuse – until the teacher whips out the short on christmas register that is… I agree that’s a good excuses on only some teacher just keep that in mind. That excuses are great ! But if u in Viet Nam that is college app essay not the best excuse because every teacher will be detention all week : to clean thee room every morning if you don’t want they will kick you out the full assignment skool because you big fault to lie your teacher . I would say, after I finished it, I left it on the Kitchen table last night and my little brother drew all over common college app essay, it, it was too late to start it again, I was going to thesis candide do it in the morning but I just didn’t have enough time.
That’l work at school, but not at something like university level. Common Questions. I recall someone using an excuse like that and essay outline on bullying, the lecturer said ‘well, I want to see it…’ say that ur mother is college coming to give u then escape lol this wis very funny i did it coulpe of times never got caought. The best one that I have had and hasn’t ever not worked is; in the morning before the homework is thesis candide set I quickly make a Word file with nothing on then save it as so it only works on mac, and then email it to the teacher or put it on a memory stick (this takes about a couple minuets). So then as the teacher will as I say “I have it” and common college app essay questions, show them my memory stick on the teachers computer, and essay, the file will not open because it’ll only work on mac (not on Windows that the college app essay school have) and on christmas, I can say “oh there must be something wrong with the schools system” and app essay questions, it doesn’t look bad on habeas me, or if I email it to the teacher they’ll say they can’t open it and I will say its the common app essay schools systems fault. After I say ok i’ve done it so i’ll print it of berkeley phd thesis library, tonight, as the college teacher has believed that you have done the homework they’ll allow you an extra day to argumentative on bullying ‘print it of at home’ so this gives me an extra day to do homework. Common College. Sounds complicated but its really not, oh and a tip don’t try with with an ICT teacher though.
All of my teachers have macs so that wouldn’t work haha lol. best homework exuses ever! my teacher is so strict. I find the excuses very nerve racking for me because I’m kinda a goody goody and I’ve only essay lied to my teacher like once or twice. homework due date: ill bring it tomorrow. tomorrow: i handed it in yesterday. The best excuse is I left my bag on college questions a bench and it got stolen I’m going to the police station after school to get it, my homework was inside. I’m really sorry. Charlie Ellis comment is berkeley library brillant. None of common questions, them will work with my teachers trust me i just say my dad threw it in bin on accident or get my mum for write a note for me. The best / most pathetic excuse I’ve ever heard that one of my classmates used a few years ago was….” You said do questions 1-10.
You didn’t say bring them though ” It was really funny since my teacher wasn’t capable of replying. Say how you have a tutor coming over to your house and you are going to thesis candide do your homework with him and common, you will bring it the essay next day. My excuse is common I stayed up until 10:00 and essay, (someone) told me to go to bed and look tired. I actually forgot my bag once and only realised at the train station, my teacher didn’t believe me and was really angry. They always seem to be more angry when you actually did forget to college app essay questions bring it! The way I do it (this only works if you are on a computer and if your school/college uses an full assignment, emailing system) is I either send a document with a load of gibberish in common questions it to argumentative essay on bullying the WRONG EMAIL ADRESS or I “accidentally” send them the wrong homework- (i tried this with physics homework, sending in app essay geography homework in instead) We were camping once and essay on christmas, my dog did chew my work, three folders worth!
I brought it in and was excused. Funny that teachers don’t believe this excuse, when it can and college, has happened. Get the whole class to pretend that the homework is argumentative outline due in on questions a later date. Essay On Christmas. It’s worked a couple of times but it really does depend on how organised the teacher is. i go to morehall im in year 4 my best one is my cat ate it but that’s not funny so if you join that school just say my cat ate it. You ASKED me to do it you didn’t TELL me to so I thought it was optional.
Best just go im sure i put it in my bag maybe someone took it out. hahaha these are great. The best one I’ve every heard was: My baby brother ate it. Teacher have anyone told you that your hair look nice today. My homework was eaten by the cat! The best one I’ve heard is you told us to do our homework but you did not tell us to bring it in. I always go for “I forgot it at my house” or “I forgot it at school yesterday”!! never try aliens ate my homework. 1) Say that I forgot it in the car because we went to common college questions a restaurant with my family and I had to essay of hamlet do it in college the car. 2) Ask the whole class to fake the due date. Works wonders =P.
3) Fake cry and tell your teacher that you are VERY sorry and that your parents will kill you if you get a zero and that you will do the best work of all if you can get it in tomorrow (you better do a good job in this case but it almost always works for me.) 4) My brother stole my lap top and started playing games and then the computer crashed! 5) My brother dropped my lap top (works great if your laptop is partially broken but that’s a one time thing) The fabulous excuse- (an old student of short, my teacher apparently used this excuse and he was excused for how fabulous it was) I was doing my homework in my Llama’s shed and app essay questions, I turned around to give it some hay. When I turned around the homework was in critical the Llama’s mouth! (what’s ironic is app essay questions that he doesn’t own a Llama XD.
I think that the on bullying best one is, ” I spilt tea on it this Moring” or just cry say your tummy hurts get sent to the nurse and miss the common questions lesson. umm the one i use a lot is that i just say that either: 1: i sent it to her on thesis candide email but it musn’t have gone through. 2:’um i must have been at the bathroom when you handed it out’ MAYBE if your teacher is really old and forgetful just say that you handed it in a few days before of you left it on common college his/her desk before school? My friend always comes up with the essay most ridiculous, and college, mean excuses. They normally involve his family and tragedies. Which of course, is a lie. Full Assignment. But our teacher feels sorry for him anyway. I think one of the best excuses is to common college app essay say you accidentally forgot it on the bus or something like that, other option is to always take acting class and make urself look super dissapointed in urself…. ( always worked for full assignment, me) anyways good luck #128578;
except for common college app essay, that last one! LOL. what always works is I had practice and habeas corpus, twisted my ankle so I was icing it and couldn’t do it. Once I didnt do my homework for app essay, dt. Argumentative Essay Outline On Bullying. When it was due I said my brother nicked it and accidentally dropped it in the sink when my mum was washing up. I even bought in a wet ball of paper to common college app essay prove it but if you use that exuse make sure its really soaked so the teacher cant unscrew it and see its blank. I once said that my bag fell over thesis candide, and everything fell out, I must have not picked it up and it got blew away, i got another week to do it as it was supposed to be a big load of work :3. Best one I heard today in Math was. I was taking my goldfish for a walk sir. one ive heard was ” I left it in my school trousers and my mum put them in the wash so heres whats left of my sheet. If you use exercise books to app essay questions complete your homework and you have two books of the same colour for different lessons (in our school our English and Science books are literally the same colour) just tell your teacher that you brought in the wrong book and show it to them as proof.
Either that or just hand in thesis candide your book and common college, if they tell you that they didn’t see any homework in there just tell them that you did it on lined paper and it must have fallen out (this actually worked for me). #128578; The best excuse I’ve heard is when I was taking my puppy out for argumentative essay on bullying, a walk I had my school bag with me and my homework flew out of my bag and when i wasn’t looking my puppy grabbed ahold of it and tore it to pieces when I finally saw him with a piece of paper in college questions his mouth I took it off of him and only realised that it was my homework when I opened it up I was so devastated. the best homework excuse is to tell you teacher that you went to vacation forgot every pieces of homework that was assigned because you were having so much fun when you went to vacation and all you did was just party and play care about thesis candide nothing related to school. I think the college best excuse is habeas essay “There was a funeral yesterday and common questions, i didn’t have time to do it” 1) Say that I forgot it in the car because we went to a restaurant with my family and I had to of hamlet do it in the car. 2) Ask the whole class to fake the due date. Works wonders =P. 3) Fake cry and tell your teacher that you are VERY sorry and common app essay, that your parents will kill you if you get a zero and that you will do the best work of all if you can get it in full assignment tomorrow (you better do a good job in college this case but it almost always works for full assignment, me.) 4) My brother stole my lap top and common, started playing games and then the habeas corpus computer crashed! 5) My brother dropped my lap top (works great if your laptop is college questions partially broken but that’s a one time thing) The fabulous excuse-
(an old student of my teacher apparently used this excuse and he was excused for how fabulous it was) I was doing my homework in my Llama’s shed and berkeley phd thesis, I turned around to give it some hay. When I turned around the homework was in college app essay questions the Llama’s mouth! (what’s ironic is that he doesn’t own a Llama XD. The best excuse is to draw lines over full assignment, the page, soak it, then crunch it up and bring it in. Tell your teacher that you did it outside then it started raining/tell them that you left it in you trouser poket over college app essay questions, the weekend/don’t crunch it up, leave it in your bag and say you bottle leaked XD. Best excuse ever: The internet is full assignment Down! I come up with something like. -Really bad migraine. -Tutor canceled last minute and common app essay, you can have it in by tomorrow. -Water bottle spilled all over your bag. -Your mom had baby.
-Visit someone in hospital. The made up file name always works. Just send them it in full assignment an email and attach a made up file ( for example essay.psfx) It sounds pretty real but when they go to open it the app essay questions computer will not have the right program to open it! Works a charm. My best is: I left it in thesis candide my pants so my mom wash them.
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An essay on common college, bushfires as natural hazards. Essay by library BYLuo , High School, 11th grade , A , July 2008. College App Essay Questions. A bushfire is a firre burning out of control inthe open. Short Essay. Bushfires can burn using grass,scrub or forest (or a combination of common questions these) forfuel. Unless quickly controlled, bushfirescan become large, spreading to affect forests,wildlife, crops, houses and other buildings,and human life. In Australia, some bushfireshave become major disasters. Fires are not a recent occurrence in berkeley phd thesis Australia. Since the college, last Ice Age, bushfires have influencedthe development of the Australian land. Fires arean essential element in some Australian ecosystems,which need the intense heat of library bushfires torelease the seeds from plants and replenishgrowth. College App Essay. Australian Aborigines used fires to assistthem in their hunting activities.
It is believedthat the fire activities of Aborigines contributedto the development of an open woodland ecosystemin parts of south-eastern Australia. Early European settlers used fire to assist inthe clearing of land for crops and as a means ofremoving stubble following cropping. However, inmore recent times, laws have been passedrestricting the lighting of fires for these purposes. This has led to a more dense vegetation in corpus essay manyrural areas and a greater accumulation of leaf andba rk litter on the ground. College App Essay Questions. The litterprovides a significant amount of fuelfor fires if they do start. Thesis Candide. Bushfires are one of the most destructiveforces of nature. Firefighters risktheir lives each year to control andeventually extinguish them.
Eventhough bushfires can occur naturally,mainly as a result of lightning strikesand spontaneous combustion, most arestarted by common app essay questions the activities of people. Thisincludes cigarettes and short, matches beingcarelessly discarded, electricity cables,sparks from machinery and tools, andburning off. Arson has been the causeof some of the common, worst bushfires. Full Assignment. BUSHFIRESWHAT CAUSESBUSHFIRES?Eucalypts and common app essay, bushfiresThere are two main types of bushfires:A?A· Surface bushfires burn in grass, low shrubs andground litter. They can travel at high speed butare relatively easy to control. A?A· Crown bushfires occur when heat and flamesfrom a surface flre ignite the crowns of trees. Crown fires spread rapidly if there are strong,hot winds and very dry vegetation. Full Assignment. Hugeamounts of A?A?ammable eucalyptus vapour,transpired from leaves, can create firebrandsthat engulf the tree crowns ahead of the firefront. This makes crown fires very dangerousand difficult to control.
As the map shows, bushfires usually occurin the less arid parts of Australia. Aridareas tend not to have enough fuel to sustainfires for any length of time. SoutheasternAustralia is particularly subject tobushfires. There are several reasons for this,including the common, following:1. Thesis Candide. Large areas are covered with sclerophyll vegetation.
The dominant trees are eucalypts,which have highly flammable oil in theirbranches. Eucalypts burn readily and canbecome so hot during fires that their sap boilsand the whole tree or shrub can explode inflames. Common College App Essay Questions. This is not a problem for the plantspecies as most eucalypt varieties burn hotand fast as a means of releasing seeds onto thefire-cleared ground. Some burnt trees simplysend up new shoots from their stumps or rootsand grow to full-size trees again. 2. The area is also subject to prolonged periods ofbelow average rainfall and droughts. Many ofthe most severe bushfires have occurredduring droughts and El NiA?A±o events. Bushfiresand drought often occur together. 3. South-eastern Australia is also subject toheatwaves and strong northerly winds duringthe summer months. Two or three days ofheatwave weather can often provide conditionssuitable for habeas essay bushfires to occur. Bushfires can bring massive destruction, loss oflife and personal hardship to families and communities.
Individuals, community-based groupsand governments have responded to this hazardin many ways. There are over 70 000 individuals who are volunteermembers of bushfire brigades. They domost of the college, fighting of bushfires. During times ofsevere bushfires they can be on duty for days at atime, sometimes facing extreme danger. Theymake a highly significant contribution to makingour communities safer. Thesis Candide. The government has set up many agenciesthat work to protect the community when bush-fires occur. These include A?A®re brigades, police andambulance services, welfare agencies and theState Emergency Service. Governments can provideemergency financial assistance in severebushfires. Common College App Essay Questions. The Bureau of Meteorology providesshort- and long-term weather forecasts to essay warnof bushfire dangers. An essay on bushfires as natural hazards. (2008, July 03). In WriteWork.com.
Retrieved 03:34, October 05, 2017, from college http://www.writework.com/essay/essay-bushfires-natural-hazards. WriteWork contributors. An essay on bushfires as natural hazards WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 03 July, 2008. Web.
05 Oct. 2017. WriteWork contributors, An essay on bushfires as natural hazards, WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/essay-bushfires-natural-hazards (accessed October 05, 2017) An essay on Natural Hazard; Storms and Black Saturday, Canberra, 2003. . bushfire in its history. Canberra 'sfirestorm had its beginnings on 8 January, whenlightning strikes in adjacent national parksignited a number of bushfires. Shifting windswidened the phd thesis library, fire fronts of these fires, joining sometogether. Eight days later, strong south-westerlywinds drove the bushfire . 2 pages 1958 Jul/2008 0.0. . force of gravity. Rock slides and debris slides result when rocks or debris slide down . 1 pages 2 Nov/2008 0.0. The Alaskan Highway Pipeline Project. . Highway Pipeline Project is college questions, one of Trans-Canada's natural gas pipeline constructions. This project . 9 pages 37 Feb/2007 5.0. Thesis Candide. . Lower Egypt (Parsons 2001).
The Nile has many distinct areas. College App Essay. Within the southern . 12 pages 46 Nov/2005 5.0. . rocks into magma. The Ring of Fire is a great example of . 4 pages 77 3 Oct/2005 5.0. . An essay comparing and contrasting the effects of a tropical storm in a MEDC country and a LEDC . . natural disasters cause havoc but one of the most common natural . do is evacuate the area and hope the .
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is app essay, scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to essay on christmas your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to app essay get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to habeas essay get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion.
You know that you should state your thesis in app essay, the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to full assignment practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to common college app essay do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of corpus sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and common questions how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means.
If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by corpus essay, a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an common app essay 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and short essay on christmas Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing.
A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . College App Essay Questions! Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to full assignment get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is college questions, going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to phd thesis write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in common questions, that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). Habeas! We’ve marked the differences between the college, 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text.
The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of thesis candide substantive errors of app essay fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. Thesis Candide! The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text.
A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and app essay questions examples in short essay on christmas, the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an common college app essay questions understanding of the corpus, analytical task. Common College App Essay Questions! The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the habeas, text that are most relevant to college addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the berkeley phd thesis library, source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. App Essay! The response contains relevant, sufficient, and outline on bullying strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the app essay questions, text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into on christmas the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the text.
The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and college app essay questions conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the thesis candide, essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the questions, quality of writing.
The response is cohesive and thesis candide demonstrates a highly effective use and command of app essay questions language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in full assignment, sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the common college questions, conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of thesis candide errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the college app essay questions, 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the essay, information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and common app essay questions the author’s claim(s)
In other words, you need to full assignment excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is common, as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the critical of hamlet, passage.
The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the college questions, counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language.
Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. Thesis Candide! In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of common these facts and outline on bullying figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by common app essay questions, starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention.
When the habeas, reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by questions, US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to essay on bullying his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the common college app essay questions, counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of essay of hamlet social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in common college questions, turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the full assignment, contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and common app essay questions admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting.
In addition, Goodman drives the of hamlet, reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the college, article with the repetition of the essay outline on bullying, phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the college, readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the essay of hamlet, other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of app essay questions his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in thesis candide, purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in common questions, here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the elements in habeas, this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for app essay, the million-dollar question:
What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on essay outline on bullying, to find out common app essay questions what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on berkeley library, clarity, and common clarity requires precise language and thesis candide obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is college, used effectively and full assignment appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and app essay compelling language : The effect of full assignment Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the app essay, reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. Thesis Candide! All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and common understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs.
The writer also makes sure to identify the habeas, what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the common college app essay, reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and berkeley phd thesis evidence, then the presentation and refutation of common app essay questions a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is habeas corpus, easy to follow. The clarity of the college, argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the thesis candide, meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is questions, similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the habeas essay, same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.
The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to college convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in critical essay of hamlet, most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of common college app essay facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).
But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of argumentative essay outline context for her examples. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and questions stay focused on the task. Essay! To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to common college app essay avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of full assignment “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. College Questions! Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to on bullying be perfect to score an 8 in common, Writing.
This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of thesis candide your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and common develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on short essay, all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to common app essay do this:
Read through our complete list of habeas corpus essay SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. App Essay Questions! If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. Thesis Candide! For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about common college your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on corpus essay, the essay!). Common Questions! Otherwise, try to get help from an full assignment English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to common college mirror the actual test.
Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. Essay Outline On Bullying! You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to common college questions jump up in SAT essay score. Full Assignment! Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and college app essay earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College.
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